Nitrogen Use Efficiency, Nitrogen Fertilizers, NUE, Nitrogen and the Environment Library of Yield Prediction Equations
CURRENT Generalized Algorithm (options 30, 31) 

Winter wheat algorithm 2015 (option 1) YP0=590*EXP(INSEY*258.2)

Corn algorithm 2015 (US Grain Belt, option 12)

Outline for Generating New Crop Algorithms for N Fertilization
Link for computing cumulative GDD by ZIP Code
What Do N Rich Strips Say About N Rate Algorithms, and Geostatistics and Sampling NDVI, John Solie, University Perspective
Yield Potential Prediction Equations:  Coefficients
Wheat:  INSEY = (NDVI / days from planting to sensing where GDD>0)
Corn:  NDVI/ cumulative GDD

NUE Conference, Generalized Algroithm (excel file), J. Solie, August 4, 2012


Condition Crop Year Equation Units NUE RI Adjustment Equation
Dryland Winter Wheat  2002 YP0=344*EXP(INSEY*267.65) kg/ha 50
Dryland Winter Wheat  2003 YP0=500*EXP(INSEY*267.65) kg/ha 50
Dryland Winter Wheat 2004 YP0=359*EXP(INSEY*324.4) kg/ha 50
Dryland Winter Wheat 2005 YP0=522*EXP(INSEY*274.7) kg/ha 50 RI Harvest = 1.69(RI-NDVI) -0.70
Dryland Winter Wheat 2006 YP0=532*EXP(INSEY*270.1) kg/ha 50 RI Harvest = 1.69(RI-NDVI) -0.70
Dryland Winter Wheat 2016 YP0=590*EXP(INSEY*258.2) kg/ha 50 RI Harvest = 1.69(RI-NDVI) -0.70
Dryland Winter Wheat 2007 Mod CoefA = 0.383516x2 - 91.989634x + 6214.147063
CoefB = -0.000423x2 + 0.099424x - 3.746111
YP0 = (CoefA * EXP (CoefB * NDVI))
kg/ha 50 RI Harvest = 1.69(RI-NDVI) -0.70
Dryland Winter Wheat, KSU-OSU 2015 YP0=734.57*EXP(INSEY*212.14) kg/ha 50 RI Harvest = 1.11(RI-NDVI) + 0.11
Dryland Winter Wheat-Forage 2007 YP0 = 159.57*EXP(3.909*NDVI) kg/ha 50
Dryland & Irrigated Durum Wheat 2006 YP0=322*EXP(INSEY*211.5) kg/ha   RI Harvest = 1.69(RI-NDVI) -0.70
Dryland & Irrigated Durum Wheat (for increased protein) 2006 YP0=322*EXP(INSEY*211.5)* *apply 20 kg N/ha when projected yield exceeds 4000 kg/ha kg/ha  
Rainfed Wheat-Southern Australia, David Cox 2006 YP0=1800*EXP(INSEY*85) kg/ha 60 RI Harvest = 1.69(RI-NDVI) -0.70
Rainfed Wheat, E. Australia, R. Heath 2006 YP0=580*EXP(INSEY*244.94) kg/ha 60 RI Harvest = 1.69(RI-NDVI) -0.70
Irrigated Corn 2003 YP0=2332.9*(EXP(INSEY*132.46) kg/ha 50
Dryland Corn 2003 YP0=1633*(EXP(INSEY*132.46) kg/ha 50
Dryland & Irrigated Corn 2004 YP0=1565*(EXP(INSEY*154.7) kg/ha 50 RI Harvest = 1.64(RI-NDVI) - 0.5287
Rainfed Corn (1st planting, Argentina) 2005 YP0=1941*(EXP(INSEY*162) kg/ha 50 RI Harvest = 1.64(RI-NDVI)-0.5287
Irrigated Corn (2nd planting, Argentina) 2005 YP0=624*(EXP(INSEY*149.41) kg/ha 50
Rainfed Corn (USA) 2006 YP0=1202*(EXP(INSEY*169.6) kg/ha 50 RI Harvest = 1.64(RI-NDVI)-0.5287
Irrigated/Rainfed Corn USA, Cummulative GDD 2007 YP0=2592*(EXP(NDVI/Sum of GDD*1775.6) kg/ha 50 RI Harvest = 1.64(RI NDVI) -0.5287
Irrigated/Rainfed Corn USA, Cummulative GDD 2009 YP0=1.291*(EXP(NDVI/Sum of GDD*2649.9) bu/ac   RI Harvest = 1.64(RI NDVI) -0.5287
Corn Colombia 2014 YP0 =1633*(EXP(INSEY*132.4)) 60
Corn Colombia (Llanos orientales) 2015 YP0=60.9*(EXP(INSEY*252.6)) kg/ha 60
Rainfed Corn Ohio 2008 YP0=1287*(EXP(NDVI/Sum of GDD*2655) kg/ha   RI Harvest = 1.64(RI NDVI) -0.5287
Irrigated/Rainfed Corn (USA), days from planting to sensing 2007 CoefA = 11.777*(days*days) - 1485.4*(days)+48533
CoefB = -0.0008(days*days) + 0.1402*(days)-3.3851
YP0 = (CoefA * EXP (CoefB * NDVI))

days = days from planting to sensing

kg/ha   RI Harvest = 1.64(RI NDVI) -0.5287

Irrigated/Rainfed

Corn (USA) Using Cumulative GDD

2007

CoefA=641.4158203057011+4207.148880805758/(1.0+EXP(-(x-897.0822110817790)/(-32.78891349907328)))

CoefB=1.46923333343772+1.8752166665474/(1+EXP(-(x-912.164821648278)/2.66689327528455))
(x = cumulative GDD)
YP0 = (CoefA * EXP (CoefB * NDVI))

kg/ha

 

RI Harvest = 1.64(RI NDVI) -0.5287

Rainfed Sorghum 2005 YP0=72*(EXP(INSEY*296.2) kg/ha   none
  Sorghum KSU-OSU 2006 YP0=633*(EXP(INSEY*141.94)      
Sorghum KSU  2007 new YP0=58.689*(EXP(INSEY*273.47) kg/ha RI-Harvest=2.104*RI NDVI -1.044
Rainfed, 50% NUE Sorghum OSU-KSU 2008 2008 YP0=183.37*(EXP(INSEY*217.7) kg/ha   RI Harvest = 1.69*RI NDVI -0.7
Irrigated Spring Wheat Mexico 2003 YP0=701*EXP(INSEY*154.91) kg/ha 60  
Irrigated Spring Wheat Mexico 2006 YP0=989*EXP(INSEY*130.65) kg/ha 60
Irrigated Spring Wheat
Mexico (Melgas)
2007 YP0=1250*EXP(INSEY*106.12) kg/ha 60  
Irrigated Spring Wheat,
Baja California, Jesus Santillano
2014 YP0=1087.9*EXP(INSEY*134.69) kg/ha 60  
Irrigated Spring Wheat, Baja California, Jesus Santillano 2015

y = 1.0811e(INSEY*135.134)

kg/ha 60 RI Harvest = 1.69*RI NDVI - 0.7
Rainfed Spring Wheat INDIA (67-73 days after planting) 2006 YP0=838*EXP(INSEY*177.12) kg/ha 60
Rainfed Spring Wheat
Argentina
2007 YP0=680,547*EXP(NDVI*2701) NDVI a inicios de encanazon kg/ha 60  
Rainfed Canada, Spring Wheat 2009 YP0=853.2*exp902.9x  where x=NDVI/GDD0 where GDD0= Sum of daily GDD, base-tem = 0C RI=(RINDVI*1.105)+0.02(max of 2)
Dryland Spring Wheat Canada 2005 YP0 = 1659*(exp(732.72*INSEY)) kg/ha 60
Dryland Spring Wheat
Canada
2008 YP0 = 996.3*(exp(1779*INSEY)) INSEY = NDVI/sum of GDD in F kg/ha 60 RI Harvest = 1.69(RI-NDVI) -0.70
Dryland Bermudagrass 2006 YP0 = 728.8*(exp(639.5*(INSEY)) kg/ha 40 none
Dryland Canola Canada 2005 YP0=1408.3*exp(744.61*INSEY) kg/ha  
Dryland Canola Canada 2008 YP0=885.7*exp(881.5*INSEY), INSEY = NDVI/sum of GDD kg/ha   RI-Harvest=1.69*RI-NDVI - 0.7
Dryland Canola Canada 2009 YP0=701.9*exp(632.9x) x=NDVI/GDD0, sum of daily GDD, baste temp = 5C      
Rainfed Rice INDIA, 64-28 days after planting 2006 YP0=2104*EXP(INSEY*124.96) kg/ha 60
Rainfed North Central
Cotton
2010 YP0=29.32*EXP(INSEY*4725) INSEY = NDVI/ cum GDD kg/ha 50 RI harvest = 3.33*RI NDVI - 2.315
Irrigated South West
Irrigated Cotton
2010 YP0=231.6*EXP(INSEY*3668.1) INSEY = NDVI/ cum GDD kg/ha   RI harvest = 3.33*RI NDVI - 2.315
Dryland Cotton 2008 YP0= 235.96*EXP(INSEY*2216.2)  INSEY = NDVI/ cum GDD, with 60F as lower threshold (range of 50 to 80) 50 RI harvest = 1.8579*RI NDVI - 0.932
Dryland Malting Barley 2006

CROP

Percent N, %

Test weight, lb/bu

Maize (Colombia)

1.55

56

Maize (Argentina)

1.24

56

Maize (USA)

1.25

56

Maize (Minnesota)

1.23

56

Winter Wheat

2.39

60

Winter Wheat (Kansas)

2.10

60

Winter Wheat Forage

2.46

 

Spring Wheat (Ciudad Obregon)

2.45

60

Spring Wheat (Baja California)

2.10

60

Spring Wheat (Dakota's)

2.40

60

Wheat Argentina

2.20

60

Sorghum

1.95

56

Sorghum KANSAS

1.96

56

Spring Wheat (Canada)

2.23

60

Wheat S-Australia

2.00

60

Wheat E Australia

2.25

60

Bermudagrass

2.00

na

Spring Wheat Argentina

1.95

60

Spring Wheat (India)

1.60

60

Rice (India)

1.28

45

Cotton Lint

8.64

 

Durum Wheat

2.24

60

Canola (Canada)

3.30

50

Crop

Range(%)

Average(%)

Source

Spring Wheat

2.00-2.649

2.39%

Hopkins, J.W. 1968. Protein content of western canadian hard red spring wheat in relation to some environmental factors. Ag. Meteorology.

Winter Wheat

1.6-2.8

2.29%

Debaeke, P., Aussenac, T., Fabre, J.L., Hilaire, A., Pujol, B., and Thuries, L. 1996. Grain nitrogen content of winter bread wheat (Triticium aestivum L.) as related to crop management and to the previos crop. Europen Journal of Agronomy. 5(1996) 273-286.

Corn

1.23-1.46

1.31

Heckman, J.R., J.T. Sims, D.B. Beegle, F.J. Coale, J. Herbert, T.W. Bruulsema, and W.J. Bamka. 2003. Nutrient removal by corn grain harvest. Agronomy Journal. 95: 587-591.

Corn (grain)

 0.7 to 1.25 (lb/bu)

1.1%N

Potash and Phosphate Institute. 2001. Nutrients removed in the harvest portion of a crop [Online]. Available at http://www.ppi-ppic.org/ (verified 30 Jan. 2012). Potash and Phosphate Inst., Norcross, GA.

Corn (silage, 67% water)

 

9.7(lb/ton)

Potash and Phosphate Institute. 2001. Nutrients removed in the harvest portion of a crop [Online]. Available at http://www.ppi-ppic.org/ (verified 30 Jan. 2012). Potash and Phosphate Inst., Norcross, GA.

Sorghum

0.99-1.68

1.34

Jones C. A. 1983. Field Crop Research 6: 133-147

Sorghum

1.60-1.69

1.65

Mucho R. 1990. Effect of nitrogen on partitioning and yield in grain sorghum under differing environmental conditions in the semi-arid tropics. Field Crop Research 25: 265-278

Sorghum

 

2.44

Mucho R. 1990. Effect of nitrogen on partitioning and yield in grain sorghum under differing environmental conditions in the semi-arid tropics. Field Crop Research 25: 265-278

Canola

3.2-4

3.6

R. F. Brennan, M. G. Mason & G. H. Walton (2000). Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the concentrations of oil and protein in canola (brassica napus) seed 23:3, 339-348

Canola

3.12-3.42

3.25

E. Assadi, H. Janmohammadi, A. Taghizadeh, and S.Alijani (2011). Nutrient composition of different varities of full-fat canolaseed and nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy of full fat canola seed with or without enzyme addition and thermal processing :20:95-101

Canola

3.5-3.81

3.64

O.Ozturk, S. Soylu, R. Ada, S. Gezgin, and Babaoglu (2010).Studies on  Differential Response of Spring Canola Cultivars to Boron Toxicity .33 :1141-1154

Sunflower (seed)

3.67-4.61

4.41

Robinson, R.G.1975.Amino Acid and Elemental Composition of Sunflower and Pumpkin Seeds. Ag.J Vol.67 pg.541-544

N to protein factor  (6.10)

Sunflower

3.35-3.93

3.64

Gholinezhad, E., Aynaband, A., Ghorthapeh, A.H., Noormohamadi, G., and Bernousi, I. 2011.Effect of drought stress and nitrogen rates on grain yield, quality traits and physiological indices in sunflower hybid iroflor at different plant density. World Applied Sciences J. 14(1): 131-139.

N to protein factor (6.10)

Protein =%N x 6.25 or %N x 5.7 in case of wheat grain

1 percent N = 10,000 ppm
1 percent N = 10,000 mg/kg
1 percent N = 10,000 ug/g
1 percent N = 10 g/kg
g/kg = percent

http://kenanaonline.com/files/0037/37671/M968_06.PDF


In the figure above, 6 yield potential equations are reported for winter wheat, spring wheat, dryland corn and irrigated corn.  As is noted, the 6 equations are really quite similar.  This is important when considering that the winter wheat equation came from data in Oklahoma, spring wheat from North Dakota, South Dakota, and Mexico, and Corn (both irrigated and dryland), from Mexico, Nebraska, and Oklahoma.  Each production region (country or state specific) may well have minor adjustments that are needed (variety, planting date, etc.), but for the most part these yield potential predictive equations should be accurate.  Regardless, what is apparent here is that all grain yield prediction equations will have the same form. The importance of the yield potential equations is that they accurately reflect what the "yield potential" will be for the growing conditions encountered within a specific year.  "Yield potential" changes from year to year in the exact same field, largely due to temporal variability.  Also, looking at the graphs, our estimate of yield potential is the "yield" you hope to grow given the "current" growth rate (on the day of sensing), thus, the outer edge of the data set is used, and estimated by adding 1 standard deviation along the entire exponential curve.  For all crops (see figures below), very few data points were encountered in the upper left hand corner, noting that this outer edge represented a rather clean upper boundary.  As is noted above, the YP0 equation for wheat is somewhat different that the other crops, largely because many of the days from planting to sensing have GDD<0 (growing degree days or Tmin+Tmax/2 - 4.4C), where growth is not possible.  The growth curve (biomass produced per day), estimated using NDVI (excellent predictor of biomass) has proven to be a reliable parameter for estimating harvested grain yield in winter wheat, spring wheat, and corn (both dryland and irrigated). Actual data for all equations is shown below.  



Spring wheat (Ciudad Obregon), employs a different strategy whereby "maximum yields" can theoretically be achieved from in-season N applications, regardless of how severe the N stress is.  This is consistent with previous studies conducted by Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio showing that the plants can completely recover, provided that the N is applied before Feekes 5, or Zadoks 30 to 31.  Also, the spring wheat algorithm adjusts for "projected N removed" based on an equation established at CIMMYT (figure below).


Figure 2.  Relationship between grain N removed in spring wheat, and grain yield, developed at Ciudad Obregon.

Spring Wheat, Canada, 2004-2007

Restrictions
Corn (V8 to V10)
Winter Wheat (Feekes 5 to Feekes 7)
Spring Wheat (prior to Feekes 7)

INSEY versus Winter Wheat Grain Yield, for 1998-1999 (9 Loc's) and 1998-2004 (35 Loc's), and 2004 (5 Loc's) versus 1998-2004 (35 Loc's).   The ability to establish a yield prediction equation from only one year of data (5 Loc's in 1994) is delineated in the above graph when compared to the yield predication equation for all 35 sites from 1998 to 2004 and that spanned 7 years.

            corn yield prediction


Trimble Pocket Sensor, Greenseeker, NDVI, nitrogen
Comprehensive information on Nitrogen Use Efficiency for cereal crop production