Nitrogen Use Efficiency, Nitrogen Fertilizers, NUE, Nitrogen and the Environment By Plant Prediction of Corn Grain Yield
Corn Research, Foliar UAN, Mexico 2002                                                   
Production Data for Corn
OSU Corn Research Page
  • Average USA corn yield: 153.9 bu/ac

  • Corn Acres Planted: 85.9 million acres

  • Corn Production USA: 12.1 billion bushels

Wheat Feekes Growth Stages

Yield prediction
By-Plant Yield Prediction in Corn Production Systems

Nitrogen Uptake in Wheat and Corn

By-Plant N Management and Delayed Emergence Trials

By-Plant Prediction of Corn Forage and Grain Yield Using NDVI and Plant Height at Various Growth Stage, Freeman et al. (2004)
By Plant Corn Yield Prediction
CV algorithm tested for variable N application in Winter Wheat

Estimating Corn Yield Losses from Uneven Plant Spacing (Carlson, Doerge, Clay)

Plant to Plant Variability in Corn Production (Agronomy Journal)
By-plant variability in corn grain yield (45 transects)

Use of Fixed Distances or Actual Distances to Compute By-Plant Corn Grain Yields, What is the Difference?

Causes of By-Plant Variability in Corn Production Systems

Spatial Variability of N, What is the Scale?

What are the Errors in Predicting Yield on a By-Plant Basis?

NVDI Sensor Reading

Corn yield prediction from NDVI sensor readings collected at V8 from locations in Mexico, Nebraska, Iowa, and Oklahoma where INSEY (in-season estimated yield) was NDVI divided by the cumulative growing degree days from planting to sensing.


Corn yield prediction, Ohio, Dr. Robert Mullen
Corn yield prediction equation developed by Dr. Robert Mullen using GreenSeeker NDVI values collected between V6 and V10 divided by the cumulative growing degree days from planting to sensing. 

The above graph shows results over 2 years (6 total sites in Oklahoma) where corn forage N uptake can be predicted from growth stages ranging from V8 to V10.  However, it should be noted that this was from by-plant data (NDVI and N uptake determined by-plant).

Relationship between cotton lint yield and INSEY (NDVI divided by cumulative GDD)

Mean: 9496.17 kg/ha
Standard Deviation: 3737.60 kg/ha

Mean 9983.29 kg/ha
Standard Deviation: 4132.39

Lake Carl Blackwell, Oklahoma.  Variability in by-plant corn yields over 15 m of row.

Shelton, NE, MSEA Site, USDA-ARS 2004.  Work by Paul Hodgen, Kent Martin, and Kyle Freeman has shown that SPAD readings taken "by-plant" at V16 were highly correlated with final "by-plant" grain yields. This relationship would not have been observed unless the by-plant resolution had been used.

Reproducibility of NDVI readings over 16m using an on-board shaft encoder, with 50 corn plants sensed at the 7-leaf growth stage on May 23, 2003, Perkins, OK.
Average NDVI (by-plant) determined by collecting sensor readings from the sum of 1/2 the distance left and right to its neighboring plants. Similarly, by-plant yields were determined from the from the exact same area for which NDVI measurements were captured.
By Plant Corn Yield Prediction
The New Greenseekers for corn

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