Nitrogen Use Efficiency, Nitrogen Fertilizers, NUE, Nitrogen and the EnvironmentLong Term Soil Fertility Experiments at Oklahoma State University
 


1. ASA Centennial Calendar, Featured Experiments (site with original pictures)
2.
PDF file from the ASA Centennial 
3. PDF, ASA Centennial (#2) 
4. Soil Classification, ALL Sites
5. OSU Field Research (various stations including EFAW )
Long Term Field Experiments, Oklahoma State University

Long-Term Experiment Founding Fathers
A.C. Magruder, Horace Harper, Dr. Billy Tucker, Dr. Robert Westerman


AC Magruder Horace Harper Dr. Billy Tucker Dr. Robert Westerman
Long Term Experiments Presentation/Products, March 2016, IPNI
OSU Ongoing Long Term Experiments
Experiment Location Focus Crop Year Established
Magruder Plots Stillwater (DATA) Magruder Plots, Plot Plan NPK-lime wheat 1892
Experiment 222 Stillwater (DATA)   Experiment 222, Plot Plan NPK wheat 1968
301 Efaw Municipal wastes wheat 1993
302 Efaw Animal wastes wheat 2000
401 Perkins Experiment 401, N and P, Perkins N and P    
406 Altus (DATA) Experiment 406 Wheat Altus, Oklahoma NPK irrigated wheat 1965
407 Altus (DATA) Experiment 407, Altus, Oklahoma NPK dryland wheat 1965
439 Altus 439 Long Term Cotton NPK cotton 1971
501 Lahoma Experiment 501 Lahoma Oklahoma NPK sorghum (1970-2004) canola (2005-present) 1970
Experiment 502 Lahoma (DATA) (Pictures) Experiment 502, Lahoma, Oklahoma NPK wheat 1970
503 Lahoma Experiment 503, Lahoma, Oklahoma P Source Method wheat 1970
504 Lahoma Experiment 504, Lahoma, Oklahoma P Source wheat 1970
505 Lahoma Experiment 505, Lahoma, Oklahoma N SourceExperiment 505 Treatment Structure, Lahoma, Oklahoma wheat 1970
         
701 LCB Zero-Till Topdress wheat 2001
Lahoma Experiments ALL Lahoma Experiments
 A.C. Magruder Horace Harper Dr. Billy Tucker
Dr. A.C. Magruder, 1867-1924
Mr. Horace Harper, 1896-1961
Dr. Billy Tucker, 1928-2014


Magruder Plots
LATITUDE: 36, 7.1844, N
LONGITUDE: 97, 5.3190, W

Annual Rainfall:  33 inches per year (825 mm)
Mean Annual Temp:  59F,  15.5C
Kirkland silt loam (fine, mixed, thermic Udertic Paleustolls)

Long Term Experiments, Oklahoma State University.  March 3, 2016, Denver, Colorado
lbs N/ac * 1.12 = kg N/ha
lbs P2O5/ac * 0.436 * 1.12 = kg P/ha
lbs K20/ac * 0.830 * 1.12  = kg K/ha
Nurtrient Management Update (2015, Seminar fall, powerpoint file) Includes Long-Term Trial Discussion, Hatch Act
 

Magruder Plot Pictures

Publications

Nitrogen Balance in the Magruder Plots Following 109 Years in Continuous Winter Wheat  J. Plant Nutr.  26:1561-1580. (pdf)

Use of Stability Analysis for Long-Term Soil Fertility Experiments.  Agron J. 85:159-167

The Magruder Plots, Untangling the Puzzle.  2007. Agron J. 1191-1198

The Magruder Plots:
Environmental Production History 1892-2017


In 1892, A.C. Magruder initiated a soil fertility experiment which would be continued for more than 100 years. The Magruder plots were initially established to evaluate wheat production on native prairie soils without fertilization. Although several changes have been made to the initial trial, the Magruder plots remain the oldest continuous soil fertility wheat experiment west of the Mississippi River. One of the key findings of the Magruder Plots has been the sustained wheat production of more than 16 bu/ac, following more than 100 years without any fertilization.  Not until the last 5-10 years have we seen any benefit of K fertilization.  Early on, the response to P fertilization was notable (P-only versus the check).  As issues of sustainability and environmental safety become increasingly more important, trials such as the Magruder Plots will be further explored. 

Procedures

Initially only one plot was established to evaluate native wheat production without the application of organic or inorganic fertilizers from 1893 to 1898. From 1899 to 1929, half of the experimental area was fertilized with barnyard manure while the other half received no fertilization. In 1930, Dr. H.J. Harper established ten separate fertilization treatments on these plots which would continue to 1947. Due to a university construction decision for a new dormitory, plots from six of the ten treatments were moved (surface 0- 16") following wheat harvest in 1947 to its present location on the Agronomy Research Station (Figure 1). The subsoil at the new location was noted to be very similar to that of the original site located just west of present day Stout Hall.

Table 1. Changes in location and treatment modifications for Magruder plots,1892-present.

Year

Trts.

Nitrogen source

N rate, lb. N/ac

N rate, manure lb. N/ac

P source

Row spacing inches

Seed Rate lb/ac

Loc.

Seed Type

1892-1898

1

-

-

-

-

7

75

Old

SRWW

1899-1912

2

Manure only

-

-

-

7

75

Old

SRWW

1913-1929

2

Manure only

-

120**

-

7

75

Old

HRWW

1930-1933

10

NaNO3 (16-0-0)

33

120**

OSP (0-20-0-12S)

7

75

Old

HRWW

1934-1945

10

NaNO 3(16-0-0)

33

120**

OSP (0-20-0-12S)

14

50

Old

HRWW

1946-1947

10

NH4NO3(33.5-0-0)

33

120**

OSP (0-20-0-12S)

14

50

Old

HRWW

1948

6

NH4NO3(33.5-0-0)

33

120**

OSP (0-20-0-12S)

7

75

New

HRWW

1949-1957

6

NH4NO3(33.5-0-0)

33

120**

OSP (0-20-0-12S)

14

50

New

HRWW

1958-1967

6

NH4NO3(33.5-0-0)

33

120**

OSP (0-20-0-12S)

10

60

New

HRWW

1968-1993

6

NH4NO3(33.5-0-0)

60

240**

TSP (0-46-0)

10

60

New

HRWW

1994-pres

6

NH4NO3(33.5-0-0)

60

240**

TSP (0-46-0)

7.5

60

New

HRWW

 

Table 2. Soil fertility treatment effects on Magruder Plot wheat grain yields, Stillwater, OK, 1930-2004

 

Treatment
N-P2O
5
       K2O

lb/ac/yr

1930-37

1938-47

1948-57

1958-67     

1968-77

1978-87

1988-97

1998-04

1.  Manure  only +

 

24.1

17.5

18.0

29.9

30.2

34.1

28.0

39.5

2.

0

0

0

16.6

9.5

13.3

18.9

18.0

19.6

15.1

18.6

3.

0

30

0

21.2

15.9

19.1

21.5

18.8

22.4

14.7

20.4

4.

33*

30

0

22.6

17.2

19.8

31.7

36.0

30.5

27.4

41.7

5.

33*

30

30

23.4

17.4

19.9

29.4

33.9

30.9

32.4

44.6

6.

33*

30

30+ lime

22.3

17.3

22.5

33.0

37.6

33.0

32.9

45.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mean

 

 

 

21.7

15.8

18.8

27.4

28.9

28.4

25.1

35.1

SED

 

 

 

2.6

1.8

1.8

2.0

2.6

1.9

2.6

3.7

* N rate increased to 60 lbs N/ac in 1968.  + Beef manure applied at a rate of 120 and 240 lb N/ac every fourth year for periods 1930-1967 and 1967-present, respectively.  Lime (L) applied when soil analysis indicated a pH of 5.5 or less. 

Magruder Plots

NPKL plot:  Lime only applied when soil pH < 5.5    
applied once in 1954 and once in 2009    

Figure 1. Physical location and treatment structure of the Magruder Plots, 1947-present,
Agronomy Experiment Station, Stillwater

2013, fall
Magruder Plots, 2013 East Magruder 2013
222 long term winter wheat experiment Magruder Plots, Long Term winter wheat experiment 1892 Magruder Plots, long term winter wheat Magruder Plots, pre 1947   Magruder Plots, pre 1947, long term winter wheat  Long term winter wheat experiment, 222, Stillwater OK     Magruder Plots, February 2013 Magruder Plots, February 2013 Magruder Plots, February 2013
Experiment Station Soil Classification   OSU Soil Classification

Site

County

Unit Name

Soil Classification

Altus

Jackson

Hollister silty clay loam

Fine,smectitic, thermic, Typic Haplustert

Efaw

Payne

Norge loam

Fine-silty, mixed, thermic, Udic  Paleustoll

Grainola

Fine, mixed, thermic, Vertic Haplustalf

Ashport

Fine-silty, mixed, thermic, Fluventic  Haplustoll

Easpur laom

Fine-loamy, mixed, thermic, Fluventic Haplustoll

Lahoma

Garfield

Grant silt loam

Fine-silty,mixed,superactive,thermic, Udic Argiustoll

Pond Creek silt loam

Fine,silty,mixed, active,thermic, Udic Haplustoll

LCB (East)

Payne

Port silt loam

Fine,silty,mixed,thermic,Cumulic Haplustoll

Pulaski fine sandy loam

Coarse-loamy,mixed,nonacid,thermic, Typic Ustifluvent

LCB (West)

Payne

Port silt loam

Fine-silty,mixed,thermic, Cumulic Haplustoll

Oscar

Fine-silty, mixed, thermic, Typic Natrustalfs

Pulaski fine sandy loam

Coarse-loamy,mixed,nonacid,thermic, Typic Ustifluvent

Konawa soils

Fine-loamy, mixed, thermic, Ultic Haplustalfs

Teller soils

Fine-loamy, mixed, thermic, Udic argiustoll

Perkins

Payne

Konawa fine sandy loam

Fine-loamy, mixed, thermic, Ultic Haplustalfs

Teller fine sandy loam

Fine-loamy, mixed, thermic, Udic argiustoll

Stillwater

Payne

Norge loam

Fine-silty, mixed, thermic, Udic  Paleustoll

Kirkland silt loam

Fine,mixed,thermic,Udertic,Paleustoll

 
Variation in Rainfall
The Magruder Plots (96)  ASA 2005, Salt Lake City
Inorganic N Buffering
Corn Research, Over the Years at OSU
LAKE CARL Blackwell Research
Wheat Yields in the World Over Time, also Experiment 502 (Andres Patrignani)
OTHER LONG-TERM Experiments
Experiment Location Focus Crop Year Established
801 Haskell NPK wheat 1977
802 Haskell P Application wheat 1977
803 Haskell K Application wheat 1977
804 Haskell Lime Application wheat 1977
Mead NE, 1969-1983 Mead, NE N Rate corn 1969 (discontinued in 1983)
Wheat N Rich Strips
OSU Field Experiments (Many Stations)
Articles

Experiment

Established No-till

502

Fall 2011

222

Fall 2011

601

Fall 2012

East Magruder

Fall 2011

*406

Fall 2013

407

Fall 2013

*if adequate water in Altus reservoir, tillage will be needed to make beds for late summer irrigation prior to planting. Fall 2013, 406 wheat was completely no-till.

Hennessey -Entire field has been no-till since Fall 2011


Long-Term N Applied
2015 Relationship between mean square errors and wheat grain yields in long-term experiments. J. Plant Nutr. Raun
2013 Relationship between Grain Crop Yield Potential and Nitrogen Response.  Agron. J. 105:1335-1344. Arnall
2011 Independence of Yield Potential and Crop Nitrogen Response.  J. Prec. Agric.

doi 10.1007/s11119-010-9196-z.

Raun
2009 Temporally and Spatially Dependent Nitrogen Management for Diverse Environments.  Wheat Science and Trade. Raun
2007 Long-Term Effects of Nitrogen Management Practices on Grain Yield, Nitrogen Uptake and Efficiency in Irrigated Corn (Zea mays L.). J. Plant Nutr. 30:2021-2036. Freeman
2007 Cotton Lint Yield and Quality as Affected by Cultivar and Long-Term Applications of N, P, and K Fertilizers (J. Cotton Science, 11:12-19). (pdf) Girma
2007 The Magruder Plots, Untangling the Puzzle.  (Agron J. 1191-1198) Girma
2007 Analysis of Yield Variability in Winter Wheat Due to Temporal Variability, and Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization. Arch. Agron. Soil Sci. 53:435-442. (pdf) Girma
2006 In-season prediction of corn grain yield potential using normalized difference vegetation index (Agron. J. 98:1488-1494)(pdf) Teal
2006

Analysis of yield variability in winter wheat due to temporal variability, and nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization.  Arch. Agron. Soil Sci. 53:435-442.  

Girma
2005

Optical Sensor Based Algorithm for Crop Nitrogen Fertilization  Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 36:2759-2781 (pdf)

Raun
2003 Nitrogen Balance in the Magruder Plots Following 109 Years in Continuous Winter Wheat  J. Plant Nutr.  26:1561-1580. (pdf) Davis
2003 Identifying an In-Season Response Index and the Potential to Increase Wheat Yield with Nitrogen (pdf) Agron J. 95:347-351 Mullen
2001 Nitrogen Fertilization Optimization Algorithm Based on In-Season Estimates of Yield and Plant Nitrogen Uptake  J. Plant Nutr. 24:885-898 Lukina
2001 In-Season Prediction of Yield Potential Using Wheat Canopy Reflectance,  Agron. J. 93:131-138 (pdf)  
1998 Effect of Long-Term N fertilization on Soil Organic C and total N in continuous Wheat Under Conventional Tillage in Oklahoma.  Soil and Tillage Res. 47:323-330. Raun
1997 Indirect Measures of Plant Nutrients.  Commun. In Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 29:1571-1581 Raun
1997 Effect of nitrogen rate on plant nitrogen loss in winter wheat varieties.  J. of Plant Nutr. 20:389-404. (pdf) Kanampiu
1996

Use of Spectral Radiance for Correcting In-Season Nitrogen Deficiencies in Winter Wheat. TRANSACTIONS of the ASAE,  39(5):1623-1631.  ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.

Stone
1995

Soil-Plant Buffering of Inorganic Nitrogen in Continuous Winter Wheat.  Agron J 1995 87: 827–834

Raun
1993 Use of Stability Analysis for Long-Term Soil Fertility Experiments.  Agron J. 85:159-167 Raun
1982 Economic and Agronomic Impacts of Varied Philosophies of Soil Testing.  Agron J. Olson
June 5, 2014 Passing of Dr. Billy Tucker.

Dr. Billy Tucker was an unsung hero.  He initiated many long-term experiments at OSU, almost all of which we continue today.

http://nue.okstate.edu/Long_Term_Experiments.htm

We exclusively used these applied experiments to validate and calibrate the Greenseeker NDVI sensors that were developed at OSU.  Without them, it would have taken many more years of work to resolve yield prediction and N responsiveness that are the benchmarks of our sensor-based fertilizer rate recommendations.  The most prominent of these was Experiment 502, that Dr. Tucker initiated in 1970 at the Lahoma Experiment Station.  Thanks also to the late Dr. Ray Sidwell, our 502 data set is the most comprehensive, long-term winter wheat data set in the world (http://nue.okstate.edu/Long_Term_Experiments/E502.htm).  This includes soil test data dating back to 1970, and now calibrated NDVI sensor readings (since 1996).  In the spirit of Dr. Tuckers commitment to cooperation, we share this (THESE) long-term data with whomever choses to use it.  Dr. Tucker also initiated Experiment 222 on the Stillwater Experiment Station and that likewise continues today.  All of the long-term trials that Dr. Tucker initiated were applied, simple, yet incredibly elegant in terms of their value and use, and these trials will continue well into the future.  These trials have been maintained over time because of the sustained efforts of Dr. Tucker, and one of his students, Dr. Robert Westerman.  He like Dr. Westerman received his PhD at the University of Illinois.  Both studied under Dr. Toby Kurtz, and both were students of Dr. Roger Bray.   Their tutelage has secured the application of the sufficiency concept that we adhere to today.

The Magruder Plots also continue to have current value, thanks also to Dr. Tucker, Dr. Westerman, and others who recognized how cumbersome environments are and how transitory two and three year studies can be.  Dr. Shiping Deng has over the years found free-living N-fixing cyanobacteria in the Magruder Plots where no nutrients have been applied.  Continuing these long-term trials WILL never cease to deliver added clarity in our science, for which we have Dr. Tucker to thank.

Forty Five years after Experiment 222 was started by Dr. Tucker, it is with heartfelt thanks that we salute him for being an applied scientist.  We salute him because he was a happy man, he laughed, he smiled, and he truly loved our trade. 

 
Nitrogen Use Efficiency, Nitrogen Fertilizers, NUE, Nitrogen and the Environment
 
Independence of N responsiveness and Yield Potential
Magruder
Arlington, WI

Shelton, NE