Nitrogen Use Efficiency, Nitrogen Fertilizers,nitrogen algorithms, NUE, Nitrogen and the Environment


Department of Plant and Soil Sciences
Oklahoma State University

OSU Hand Planter

Greenseeder Hand Planter

World Nitrogen Use Efficiency for Cereal Production is 33%
Agronomy Journal, 91:357-363

World Phosphorus Use Efficiency for Cereal Production is 16%
Agronomy Journal 109:1-8

Grain Yield Level and Nitrogen Response are Independent (maize and wheat)
Journal of Precision Agriculture, 12:508

Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Cereal Grain Production with Optical Sensing and Variable Rate Application. Agronomy Journal, 94:815-820

Nitrogen use efficiency, nitrogen algorithms,improved methods of N fertilization for corn and wheat

Nitrogen Use Efficiency, Nitrogen Fertilizer, Nitrogen Management

ONLINE since 1996,  Last update: March 30, 2021
Nitrogen Facts
Nitrogen Use Efficiency Defined
N, P, K, and S World Use Efficiencies and Cycles (P and K fertilizer calculations)
Nitrogen Cycle (Bumper stickers)
Nitrogen Fertilizers
Ammonia losses from Urea +NH3 Loss Calculator
Nitrogen Fertilization Methods
Nitrogen Deficiencies
Nitrogen Uptake in Corn and Wheat (Growth Stages)
Yield Goals, YG Prediction
Can grain protein be predicted ?
Growing Degree Days and INSEY

Nitrogen and Weather
NUE Science Network
NUE in Corn, Wheat, and Rice
World Wheat, Corn, and Rice
Nitrate Critical Levels and Age of Water
Alternative Product Evaluation
History of GreenSeeker Sensor
VRT Application Equipment
Hand Held Sensor History
(2 pages)
Dr. Norman Borlaug
The Green Revolution
Experiment Stations, Plot Research

>50% NUE?
Our Approach

1. Resolution for Precision Agriculture
2. In Season Prediction, Wheat Yield
3. In-Season Prediction, Corn Yield, Case for by-plant N
4. Response Index
5. Independence of Yield Potential and N Response
6. Nitrogen Fertilization Algorithm
7. Benefits of Using this Technology
8. Yield Goals
9. Sensors Developed by OSU
10. Cotton Research
11. N Fertilization Approaches
12. Farmer Experiences and
Case Studies


Journal Publications
Conferences and Workshops
Society and Meeting Presentations
Extension of the Concept
Library of Yield Prediction Equations
Undergraduate and Graduate Classes

Journal Publications, Nitrogen Use Efficiency

2021 NUE Conference August , Lincoln, NE

ALL NUE Conferences

FACT: 20% increase in NUE for the world is worth 

105,890,000 Mg of N fertilizer consumed each year in the world; 60% for cereal production

GreenSeeker Field Results
Do Optimum N Rates Change Each Year?

Nitrogen Rich Strips for Improved Nitrogen Fertilizer Management

Sensor Based Nitrogen Rate Calculator, Topdress and Sidedress N rates for Corn and Wheat, Nitrogen management
Sensor Based Nitrogen Rate Calculator, on-line since 2002

Feekes Growth Stages, and GDD

Response Index versus Sufficiency
How can the SBNRC Help You?

Corn Producers, Why do you apply more N than Needed?

Wheat Grain Protein Optimizer (option 4)
How do I get started using the GreenSeeker Technology
I'm interested in improving how I use N fertilizer, what can I do?
Trimble GreenSeeker handheld sensor
Additional Site
Pocket Sensor

Tribute to Dr. Robert Westerman, Dr. John Solie and Dr. Marvin Stone
Nitrogen Rich Strips
Don't apply more N than you need


Current Algorithms Used

Wheat N Rich Strips for Corn
Apply for Graduate School at Oklahoma State University in Precision Agriculture
Advanced Training in Applied Precision Agriculture
Collaborative Research with USDA-ARS
Iowa State University, NSTL
University of Nebraska, USDA-ARS

Collaborative Projects

Sub Saharan Africa
Phosphorus Use Efficiency
Phosphorus Indicator Plants
Kansas State University
INTA Argentina
CIMMYT/Mexico, Guatemala
North Dakota State University
Chinese National Academy of Sciences
Saskatchewan, Canada
OSU MS and Ph.D. Graduate Students, 1991-present
Now over 117 OSU Graduate Students Have Worked with CIMMYT in Mexico, Turkey, China, Argentina, India, Russia, and Uzbekistan
  Causes of Plant to Plant Variability in Yield within Corn Production Systems By plant corn nitrogen management for improved nitrogen use efficiency International Programs in Sensor Based Nitrogen Management
GreenSeeker Sensor activities around the world
By-Plant Yield Prediction in Corn Production Systems
Predicting By-Plant Corn Yields

Precision Sensing Equipment Developed at Oklahoma State University
Precision Ag Equipment

Nitrogen Use Efficiency, Facts and Figures
NUE Facts and Figures
Use of sensor CV's for improving mid-season Nitrogen Rate Recommendations
Can sensor CV's assist in refining fertilizer N?
Hand Held GreenSeeker Sensors
Hand-Held GreenSeeker Sensors

Nitrogen Use Efficiency
The Case for By-Plant Management

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) in Mexico City

GreenSeeker Sensors
Dr. Norman Borlaug endores the GreenSeeker N Management Approach for wheat and corn production p solubility

P Solubility



  Oklahoma Soil Fertility Handbook, 2006
OSU Soil Fertility Handbook
Long Term Soil Science Fertilizer Experiments
OSU Long-Term Experiments
Bed Planting Wheat
Bed Planting Wheat
How to increase nitrogen use efficiency in corn and wheat production systems, N use efficiency
How to increase nitrogen use efficiency in cereals
Web Sites Developed in addition to NUE

Regional Precision Agriculture Trial for 2005
Collaborative Research Program for Corn Production

VRT Trials, 2002-2005 and RESOLUTION 2004

Field Scale VRT Trials 2003

OFIT Trials

MEXICO 2002 Results

General NFOA Presentation

Corn Research


Research Highlights


Soil Fertility Research and Education Advisory Board, Checkoff  Presentations



Leaf Orientation and Seed Placement

Leaf Orientation, seed placement


Seed Placement

There is no man so good, who, were he to submit all his thoughts and actions to the laws, would not deserve hanging ten times in his life. Michel De Montaigne

OSU Soil/Plant Sample Grinder


OSU Plant/Soil Grinding Procedures

Feeding Our World



Global Warming Web Site


  NASA (CO2)


Eddie, Sister, Brother, Streets of GuatemalaEddy, Guatemala



  Honduras girl collecting corn stalks
 Honduras, Stalk collection


  El Salvador, Hand Planting
El Salvador, Hand Planting